American Sports

By: Ashlyn Zubillaga, Josh Estrella, Michael Caddell, Leah Parrish

Football Injuries:

Sprains & Strains: A common injury in football. Treatment for sprains and strains is accomplished by "R.I.C.E" or Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevate.
Fractures: Fractures account for 1/4 of injuries. The bone most commonly fractured are the finger bones, the wrist bones, and the leg bones.
Turf Toe: An injury to the base of the big toe from running and jumping on artificial turf.
Achilles Tendonitis: Achilles Tendonitis is a painful condition of the ten in the back of the ankle.
Ankel Sprain: The ankle sprain is a common injury among football players.
ACL: The anterior cruciate ligament, this is the most common ligiment injury. The ACL is located in the knee.
Torn Cartilage: The cartilage in the knee tears, this occurs when the menisces is injured.
Hip Point: A hip point means there is either a bone bruise or a possible fracture to the pelvis, this is usually caused by a tackle.
Concussions: A concussion is caused by a blow to the head. A concussion causeses some level of impairment of brain function which includes short term memory problems and can cause a loss of consciousness.
Burner or Stinger: This injury causes a strech or compression of the brachial plexus. Burners cause a shooting pain down the affected arm.
Spine Injuries: Spinal injuries are vary rar but highly publicized. A spinal injury is almost always seen when defensive players are in the act of tackling.
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Baseball Injuries:

Shoulder Injuries:

Rotator Cuff: An injury in the rotator cuff can be either a tears to the muscle, or tendon in and acute incident. Also a rotator cuff injury can be a gradual onset, overuse injury.
Impingment Syndrome: This is an overuse injury which is caused by friction between the rotator cuff tendons and the acromion process of the shoulder blade
Shoulder Instability: Unstability in the shoulder can be caused by inherent condition caused by ligiment and capsule laxity or by a previouse injury.

Elbow Injuries:

Medial Epicondylitis(Little Leaguer's Elbow) This injury is caused by repetitive wrist flexion placing stress on the muscles in the forarm which attach to the medial epicondyle or the bony protusion on the inside of the elbow
Lateral Epicondylitis: The radial nerve passes the elbow joint and provides stability. It can become inflamed with overuse due to poor techniques or can tear with sudden force
Radial Nerve Entrapment: The radial nerve passes the elbow joint close to the lateral epicondyle. Any inflammation of these muscle can cause impingement of the nerve.
Medial Ligament Sprain: This ligament runs down the inside of the elbow joint and provides stability, this injury can become inflamed with overuse due to poor technique or can tear with sudden force.

Knee Injuries:

Anterior Cruciate Ligament: The ACL is situated deep within the knee joint and prevents the Tibia from moving out form underneath the Femur. Injuries are most likely to occur when running from base to base especially when changing direction.
Medial Collateral Ligament: Damage can occur to this ligament when there is a force applied to the outside of the knee or if the foot is fixed and the body moves in the opposite direction
Meniscus Injuries: The menisci are two circular shaped pieces of cartilage and are most commonly injured which often occurs when the foot is fixed and body is twisted.
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Soccer Injuries:

Hamstring Pull, Tear, Strain: This injurie is most common among runners and can range from minor strains to a total rupture of the muscle at the back of the thigh
Iliotibial Band Syndrome: IT band friction syndrom often results in knee pain that is generally felt on the ouside(lateral) aspect of the knee or lower.
Muscle Cramps: A cramp is a sudden intense pain caused by a muscle involuntary and forcibly contrating muscle that does not relax.
Blisters: Blisters are fluid filled sacks on the surface of the skin that commonly occurs on the hands the feet.
Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Also called "DOMS" this muscle pain stiffness or soreness occurs 24-48 hours after particularly intense exercise or a new program.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: This term usually refers to pain under and around the knee cap it is also called "Runner's Knee"
Shin Splints: Shin Splints describe a variety of generalized pain that occurs in the front of the lower leg along the tibia. Shin Splints are considered a cumulative stress injury.
Sprains and Strains: These are acute injuries that vary in severity but usually result in pain, swelling, bruising, and loss af the ability to move and use the joint.
Stress Fractures: Stress fractures in the leg are often the result of overuse or repeated impacts on a hard surface
Tendinitis and Ruptured Tendon: Tendinitis is simply inflammation of a tendon. It generally occurs from overuse, but can also occur from a forceful contracion that causes microtears in the muscle fibers. These tears can lead to weakness and inflammation.
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Basketball Injuries:

Ankle Sprain: This is a common injury among basketball players. A sprain is stretching and tearing of ligaments. Most common damage done in an ankle sprain is to the Anterior Talofibula (ATFL) Ligament, you could also have damaged tendons as well.
Achilles Tendinitis: This injury is common in basketball due to the eccentric forces through the tendon from jumping and landing. Achillies tendinitis can be the result of overuse or follow a partial tear or rupture.
Patella Tendinitis(Jumpers Knee): This is a common overuse injury in basketball resulting in pain on a point at the bottom of the kneecap or patella. The patella tendon (or ligament as it is sometimes called) connects the kneecap to tibia bone. Under extreme stresses such as those involved in jumping a partial rupture can occur.
Knee Cartilage: This injury causes damage to the cartilage meniscus in the knee can result from jumping and pivoting or can be the result of overuse. Injury can be to the medial meniscus(inside) or the lateral meniscus(outside). The medial meniscus is often damaged with a bad medial meniscus injury.
Hamstring Strain: This injury is a tear of the hamstring muscle at the back of the thigh. thought to be more common in basketball players who fail to warm up properly or do not stretch adequately. Sometimes excessive quadriceps training to enable higher jumping can lead to an imbalance between the quads and hamstrings
Shin Splints: This is a general name given for pain in the lower leg or shin. A common cause is periostitis or inglammation of the periostium or sheath surrounding the tibia. It is an overuse injury and can be brought on in basketball players by a sudden increase in training levels, training on hard surfaces or running on the toes. Biomechanical problems of the foot such as over-pronation can also be a factor.
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Hockey Injury:

Lower Back: Hockey players are always bending, looking down at the puck aiming, and hitting. This constant bending motion create aches and pains in the lumbar area of the back.
Neck Injury: The same bending motion that affects the lower back can also strain the upper back and neck as well. Add turning your head to aim while bending and have the marking of and injury.
Foot Injury: Skating for hours at a time can cause havoc to toes, heels, and ankles. The lack of circulation, the unrelenting pressure on heel, the tight lacing at the ankle all of these can cause problems.
Tendonitis: Hockey players are vunerable to the painful inflammation of the tendon at the back of the leg. All that skating combined with the twisting and turning of the game addds unrelenting pressure to the leg.
Head Injury: Hockey players helmets sometimes skid off when he was checked and fell down hard.
Black Eye: A misaligned hockey stick or a high-stepping puck can use vulnerable eyes as a target.
Broken Teeth: Even with protective gear teeth can chip, break, and splinter if a hockey player falls down hard.
Frostbite: Lack of movement in feet and hands interferes with circulation, gloved hands and sock-covered feet, and even masked faces can feel this painful effect of the unrelenting icy cold when it lasts for longer than 20 minutes.
Cuts and Bleeding: This happens when one palyer checks another and players fall on eachother and the skates cut into the other players.
Spinal Cord: This occurs when players fall backwards right on to their backs because of poor technique.
Broken Bones: In Hockey one bad check to the boards and a twist or an awkward fall can bypass protection and cause a break to the bone.
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Pay of Sports Players:

MLB: A Common salary of a major league baseball player is $2.8 million
NFL: A common salary of a player in the national football league is payed $1.8 million
NBA: A common salary of a player in the national basketball league is payed $4.2 million
NHL: A common salary of a player in the national hockey league is payed $2.2 million
MLS: A common salary of a player in the major league soccer is payed $136,000


Our Survey:

(click the links to view the results)

1. Which sport do you most prefer to PLAY? http://www.onlinecharttool.com/graph.php?g_id=70774

2. Which Sport do you most prefer to WATCH? http://onlinecharttool.com/graph.php?g_id=70776

3. Have you even been injured playing a sport? (32 answered yes, 18 answered no)